Minnesota State Bar Association passes Conflict-Free Initiative
April 28th, 2014 | Posted By

Minnesota State Bar Association Passes Conflict-Free Initiative

On Friday, April 25, 2014, the Minnesota State Bar Association (MSBA) passed a resolution to limit the purchase of electronics that use ‘conflict minerals’ mined in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Conflict minerals

For almost two decades, Congo has suffered conflict driven by armed groups struggling for control over minerals used in all small electronics. Over six million civilians have died in the deadliest conflict since World War II.

The Enough Project, a policy organization in Washington, D.C., has initiated a campaign called the ‘conflict-free initiative’ to generate city, state, business, and private support for clear-sourcing mineral and electronic purchases. Three cities, two states, several hundred colleges and universities, and many organizations around the world support this policy.

MSBA is the first bar association in the country to support the initiative; the MSBA will purchase electronics from sources that are moving toward conflict-free status.

This action was initiated by World Without Genocide.

Learn more about the Conflict Free Initiative and the Enough Project.

Christmas Eve at Dachau and Liberation at Auschwitz
January 27th, 2014 | Posted By

Christmas Eve at Dachau and Liberation at Auschwitz

Ellen J. Kennedy, Ph.D., Executive Director

World Without Genocide at William Mitchell College of Law

Hitler became chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933.  Fifty-five days later the Nazis opened Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp and the prototype for the thousands of concentration camps that followed.  My husband and I went to Dachau on December 24, Christmas Eve.

We were in Germany over the winter holidays. World Without Genocide, a human rights organization I direct at William Mitchell College of Law, St. Paul, will co-sponsor a trip to Poland and Germany in October 2015 with Congregation Shir Tikvah, Minneapolis.  The purpose of that trip is to visit Holocaust memorials and to connect with today’s expanding and vibrant Polish and German Jewish communities.

I had never gone to Germany before.  I am a Jew. Distant family members perished in the Vilna ghetto during the Holocaust.  I knew I would wonder about every elderly German I encountered – was he a Nazi?  Had she been one of the women guards at a concentration camp?  Were they members of the Hitler Youth, or perhaps part of the Einsatzgruppen, the mobile killing squads that murdered more than a million Jews?  Or were they worse, in some ways – were they bystanders, not supporters of the Nazis but refusing to stand up when their friends and neighbors were rounded up to be slaughtered?

Dachau is a small town about ten miles northwest of Munich. It felt like being in a different reality to take a train from central Munich and, twenty minutes later, to arrive at a station marked with a sign that reads simply “Dachau.” The sign looks like every other German train station sign: white letters on a blue background, completely ordinary and banal.  Yet –  Dachau.

At the train station we had to take a bus to the camp. We had no trouble finding the right bus stop; the sign said “Bus 726 Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site.” Fifteen minutes later we were there.

It was a crisp winter day with no snow on the ground and a bright blue sky overhead.  The camp was closed, the only day of the year it closes.

Several hundred thousand people were incarcerated at Dachau from 1933 until liberation in 1945.  It was originally a place for political dissidents but its purpose quickly expanded to include forced labor and the imprisonment of Jews, German and Austrian criminals, and eventually people from 30 countries which Germany had occupied or invaded.

And it was used to train SS guards.

Nearly 40,000 people died at Dachau from starvation, disease, or execution.  The bodies were disposed of in crematoria.

Almost every German community had somebody who was sent to Dachau.  According to an academic article published in 1946, a jingle went around shortly after Dachau opened. The words were, “Dear God, make me dumb, that I may not to Dachau come” (“Lieber Gott, mach mich dumm, damit ich nicht nach Dachau kumm”).

My husband and I walked around the perimeter of the camp.  It was absolutely still.  At one point he turned to me and said, “I can almost see Nazi guards in their tall black boots, with their dogs.”  At that very moment we heard a dog bark in the distance, the only sound in that frosty morning air.

Millions of people visit genocide memorials every year. This ‘black tourism’ draws people to Cambodia’s killing fields, Rwanda’s memorials, Auschwitz, Srebrenica  -  Dachau.  Why do they go?

Six years ago, when Renee Schwartz was in the eighth grade in St. Paul, she learned about the Holocaust.  She came home after school one winter day and said to her parents, “I have to see Dachau.” Her parents understood that she needed to verify, validate, and understand what she had been studying.

The family went to Dachau for Renee’s eighth-grade spring vacation.

Renee took her camera and documented everything she saw.  She came home and held a photography exhibit about Dachau at her church.

I recently gave her a gift, a little pin with the word “Zachor,” Hebrew for “remember,” an imperative to remember those who perished in the Holocaust.  Renee laughed and said, “You’ve seen my tattoo.”  I had not; I had no idea what she meant.  She said, “A few years after I went to Dachau, I had “Zachor” tattooed on my shoulder,” and she showed me the word forever inked into her skin in Hebrew.

Renee’s visit to Dachau left a mark, not only the mark on her shoulder, but a mark on her heart and on her conscience.  She has attended the World Without Genocide Summer Institutes for high school and college students since their inception four years ago.  She was the guiding artist on the Holocaust section of our traveling exhibit Tents of Witness:  Genocide and Conflict. Social justice is part of her identity.

But I fear that most of the millions of ‘genocide tourists’ visit memorial sites to learn about the macabre, the grotesque, and the depravity of human behavior, not to honor and remember those who perished.

That Christmas Eve morning in Dachau, my husband and I cried in the silence.  We didn’t need to see the photographs and exhibits in the museum or to buy books and memorabilia in the gift shop.  We simply needed to be there, just our quiet presence on the grounds where the bones and ashes of thousands and thousands of people lay, underneath our very feet.

We will remember.  But remembering doesn’t bring back those who were murdered, nor does it bring justice to their perpetrators.

After the Holocaust, the American military held trials at Dachau, at the time the most widely-known of the Nazi concentration camps.  What a powerful setting that must have been, with an almost-palpable presence of the 40,000 dead hovering in the courtrooms.

Over a three-year period at Dachau, the Americans prosecuted 1,672 German alleged war criminals in 489 separate proceedings and convicted 1,416 members of the Nazi regime.  Of these, 297 received death sentences and 279 were sentenced to life in prison. All convicted prisoners were sent to War Criminals Prison #1 at Landsberg am Lech to serve their sentences or to be hanged.

One of those hanged was Martin Gottfried Weiss, commandant of Dachau.   Among the crimes for which he was convicted:  the construction and use of Dachau’s gas chamber, and for directing heinous medical experiments on the camp prisoners.  He was executed in Landsberg prison in May 1946.

Justice happens after the horrors have ended.  But how do we prevent these travesties to our common sense of humanity?

After a commentary I wrote appeared recently in the Minneapolis Star Tribune, I received a hand-written note from a lawyer in Richfield.  He asked, “What can I do specifically to help as a student, working person, retired person, etc.?  What can my working or retired friends and our kids do?”

Terrible tragedies are happening today in many places in the world – Burma, Congo, Central African Republic, Syria, Darfur, South Sudan.  The US sends critical aid; displaced people need food, water, medicine, and shelter, which many nations, groups, and individuals generously provide.

But it is a moral affront to think that we would have sent rice to Auschwitz or to Dachau and assuaged our conscience that we had done enough.  We must think beyond aid. We must encourage our leaders to broker peace, to engage in political, diplomatic, and economic measures to end conflict.  Call Senator Klobuchar (888-224-9043), Senator Franken (202-224-5641) and urge them to do more.  Call every day. Ask your friends to call.  Call Congressman Ellison, who is on the House Foreign Affairs Committee (202-225-4755).

At a local level, World Without Genocide advocates for specific city and state legislation to make a difference.  Governor Dayton recently signed into law a bill that designates every April as Genocide Awareness and Prevention Month, a bill we initiated and that we support in other states around the country.  In 2008 Governor Pawlenty signed into law a bill divesting our state public pension funds from companies complicit in funding the genocide in Darfur.  We will be involved in city and state legislation this spring to make a difference in the crisis in Congo and to prohibit medical personnel’s complicity in torture.  Visit our website to become part of our work.

Today, January 27, is the United Nation’s International Holocaust Remembrance Day.  The date is the anniversary of the day on which Auschwitz was liberated, the largest Nazi death camp where more than a million Jews were exterminated.  We must remember.  We also must act.

Auschwitz and Justice
January 27th, 2014 | Posted By

Auschwitz and Justice

by Ellen J. Kennedy, Ph.D., Executive Director

World Without Genocide at William Mitchell College of Law

We all know the name Auschwitz, one of six extermination sites during the Holocaust where Jews were murdered in gas chambers and then turned into ashes in crematoria.

Auschwitz, near Krakow, Poland, was actually a whole network of concentration camps: a main camp, a forced-labor camp, an extermination site, and 45 satellite camps.  As many as 1.3 million people were sent to this complex, including Poles, Roma and Sinti, Soviet prisoners of war, Jehovah’s witnesses – and, of course, Jews.

Auschwitz

Shocking research from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum revealed that the Nazis had organized more than 42,500 concentration camps throughout the occupied areas.  But Auschwitz is perhaps the most horrific of all these camps because it was at Auschwitz where more than a million Jews perished, 90 percent of all who were killed at the camp.  Those who were not murdered in the gas chambers died of starvation, torture, medical experimentation, individual execution, and disease.

Extermination operations at Auschwitz occurred from 1941, when the Nazis put into place the ‘Final Solution’ of what to do with the Jews of Europe, until the end of 1944.  Auschwitz was finally liberated by the Soviet army on January 27, 1945.

It is estimated that nearly 7,000 German SS members were on the staff at Auschwitz.  What happened to them after the war?

Many people know about the trials at Nuremberg, Germany in 1946 at which 23 top-ranking Nazis were prosecuted, with most found guilty of terrible crimes and many of the guilty executed.  Although the commandant of Auschwitz, Rudolph Höss, was not on trial at Nuremberg, he gave detailed testimony that was used in subsequent trials.

In May 1946, the first of several prosecutions was held in Poland for those culpable with the terror at Auschwitz.  Höss was put on trial for murder. During his trial, he was accused of murdering three and a half million people.  Höss replied, “No. Only two and a half million—the rest died from disease and starvation.” He was sentenced to death and hanged in April 1947 adjacent to the crematorium at Auschwitz.

Six months later, Polish authorities put 40 former Auschwitz staff on trial including Maria Mandel, head of the Auschwitz women’s camp and known as “The Beast,” who was responsible for the deaths of at least 500,000 women; and Therese Brandl, charged with crimes against humanity for her part in the selection process that sent people to the gas chambers.  Both women were hanged, as were 19 others; one person was acquitted; and the rest were imprisoned, most for life.

Nearly twenty years later, another series of trials was held to prosecute mid- to lower-level Auschwitz officials.  These trials ran from December 1963-August 1965 and charged 22 defendants under German penal law.  The proceedings were held in Frankfurt, Germany, and are known as the ‘second Auschwitz trial’ or the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials.  Most of the accused were imprisoned, although some were acquitted and released.

Fritz Bauer

The chief prosecutor was Fritz Bauer, who had been interned in a concentration camp himself.  Although the trial attracted a great deal of publicity in Germany, Bauer was extremely upset with the media’s portrayal of the proceedings.  The perpetrators were characterized as abnormal and as monsters, which allowed the general German public to distance themselves from any culpability with the genocide.  Bauer himself commented about the German people, “There were virulent nationalists, imperialists, anti-Semites and Jew-haters. Without them, Hitler was unthinkable.”

The vast majority of SS and other personnel who had served at the Auschwitz complex were never brought to justice. Only sixty-three of approximately 7,000 SS personnel were tried after the war.

Today, 69 years after the liberation of Auschwitz, we join around the world in acknowledging the United Nations International Holocaust Remembrance Day.  We remember those who perished at the hands of the Nazis and their collaborators:  6 million Jews, 2 million Roma and Sinti, 15,000 homosexuals, and millions of others.

There will be many ceremonies of memory, but we also need tributes in action.  We also must honor those who attempted to find justice for the victims and their families not only at Nuremberg and at the Auschwitz trials, but also at trials that occurred for decades throughout Europe – and we honor those who are dedicated to making ‘never again’ truly mean ‘never.’

Ben Ferencz
At the Nuremberg Trials in 1945 (right) and in 2002 (left)

One of those people to honor is Benjamin Ferencz.  Ferencz prosecuted the notorious Nazi mobile killing squad, the Einsatzgruppen, responsible for the shooting deaths of more than a million Jews.  He went on to dedicate his life to creating a permanent international court to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes of aggression.  That tribunal, the International Criminal Court, began operating in 2002.

Ben Ferencz, age 94, continues to be a strong and vocal advocate for the Court.  The legacy of the Holocaust, and of the Nuremberg and Auschwitz trials, is not only memory and remembrance; it is also justice.

Fully 126 nations of the world have ratified the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, the principles that guide the Court’s operation.  It is the hope of people like Ben Ferencz that the United States will soon join in supporting global standards to prevent and prosecute mass atrocities.

The Benjamin B. Ferencz Fellowships in Human Rights and Law, sponsored by World Without Genocide, are forming the next generation of lawyers to follow the many who acted for justice in the past and those who work for justice today.

Martin Luther King Day and Genocide
January 20th, 2014 | Posted By

Martin Luther King Day and Genocide

Ellen J. Kennedy, Ph.D., Executive Director

World Without Genocide at William Mitchell College of Law

The United States was charged with genocide in 1951. An organization called the Civil Rights Congress presented a document to the United Nations titled We Charge Genocide: The Crime of Government against the Negro People.  In this document the US is accused of genocide against the African-American  people.

The Genocide Convention, which had been ratified by the UN only three years earlier, defines genocide as the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group. The Civil Rights Congress document asserted that the lynching of blacks in the US, totaling 3,437 murders between 1882 and 1951, and the systematic and  legal discrimination in education, health care, employment, voting, and virtually every sector of public life, constituted genocide.

This was not the first time African-American supporters had appealed to the UN.  The National Negro Congress had submitted a statement in 1946 and the NAACP presented a plea in 1947.

Did the UN label the treatment of American blacks as genocide?

The UN never even acknowledged receiving We Charge Genocide and American media gave the document no coverage.

After all, these were the years of the Cold War.  America’s leaders were committed to presenting a positive and idealized picture of life in the US, a picture that certainly didn’t include the word ‘genocide’ to describe relations between blacks and whites. The US, the most influential member state in the UN, insured that the race issue was never addressed.

Not only was the possibility of genocide not raised, but African-Americans were actually accused of alliances with the Communists for portraying American life in a negative light.  Leading members of African-American groups advocating to be heard were punished or intimidated in a variety of ways.

How much have race relations changed since that document in 1951?  Today, on the anniversary of King’s birthday, we celebrate his courage in challenging the structural inequalities faced by American blacks.  But today, nearly half a century after King’s assassination, American blacks continue to be critically disadvantaged in education, health, politics, housing, and economic life.

We must acknowledge our own complicity in tolerating a society that is so uneven, unequal, and unjust.  We must ask ourselves what we can do to dismantle the structures of discrimination and prejudice. And then we must act.

Dr. King said, “The arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends towards justice.”  We must help bend that arc.


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Genocide of the American Indians
January 15th, 2013 | Posted By

by Ellen J. Kennedy, Ph.D.

In 1948, the United Nations passed the Genocide Convention, making it a crime to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group.  Forty years later the Convention finally was ratified by the United States Senate, and then only because of truly heroic efforts by Senator William Proxmire of Wisconsin.  Proxmire gave 3,211 speeches on the floor of the Senate, a speech a day for 19 years, every one of them unique, until the Convention was finally passed in 1988.

Why did it take forty years for the Senate to ratify the Convention?  One reason was that our leaders were afraid that the United States would be accused of genocide. [1]

In 1455 Pope Nicholas V proclaimed that Portugal and Spain could conquer North America in the name of Christian expansion. This ‘Doctrine of Discovery’ was used to justify stripping Indian tribes of their lands and their ways of life.

Indian Land For Sale

The resulting genocide of the American Indians was carried out against every aspect of their existence.  The buffalo, essential to the Indian way of life for food, clothing, weapons, decoration, shelter, fuel, and spiritual practice, was almost completely wiped out.  Tens of thousands of Indians were sold as slaves alongside African slaves and were even sold to other colonies in the Caribbean and South America.

The Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced almost 50,000 Indians off their lands in the southeastern part of the country and marched them to present-day Oklahoma; thousands died of starvation and disease on this Trail of Tears.  Thousands more were housed in three concentration camps and an insane asylum.

From the 1850s to the early 1900s, Indian land was even further reduced by the Dawes Act; 90,000 more Indians became homeless and 90 million acres of Indian land were lost.

Dakota hangings, 1862

Mass executions occurred throughout the country.  Soldiers massacred women and children at Sand Creek, Colorado in 1812; no one was ever held responsible.  The U.S. 7th Cavalry killed hundreds of Lakota Sioux in 1890 at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, with impunity; and of course the largest mass execution in the United States – 38 Dakota were hanged in Mankato, Minnesota in 1862, ordered by then-President Abraham Lincoln only one month before he signed the Emancipation Proclamation.

Genocide includes not only extermination but also the transfer of children of the group to another group.  Indian children were taken from their parents and their communities to be raised in white-run boarding schools where they were forced to assimilate to white Christian culture. Native religions were outlawed until 1978.

The trauma continued on into the 20th and, now, the 21st centuries.  In the 1970s the U.S. Government Indian Health Services forcibly sterilized 25-50 percent of American Indian women.  And the centuries of brutality reverberate today in a legacy of familial violence, human trafficking, alcoholism, and disease.

The City Councils of Minneapolis and St. Paul have resolved to rectify some of the wrongs that were committed here in Minnesota.  We must all support efforts to bring truth, honor, and justice to those whose lives and cultures were so brutally destroyed.

 


[1] The Genocide Convention Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Relations.  United States Senate, 1950, Eighty-first Congress, Second Session on the International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 204-205.

15 days and counting
October 22nd, 2012 | Posted By

November 6 – Election Day. It’s rapidly approaching and there are a number of important issues on the ballot.

World Without Genocide is advocating ‘Vote No’ on the Minnesota Marriage Amendment:

The Third Reich, the German regime that perpetrated the Holocaust, passed laws that deprived Jews of all of their rights and freedoms. The first of these ‘Nuremberg Laws,’ passed in 1935, stated that marriages between Jews and “subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden. ”

It’s shocking that the very first law to restrict Jews’ rights had to do with marriage.  More than a decade later, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, passed by the United Nations in 1948, stated that marriage is a human right. “Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution” (Article 16.1). The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1976, also tells us that marriage is a basic human right.

It is critical to note that these international documents do not specify that marriage is restricted to one man and one woman.  If marriage is restricted, that action becomes a slippery slope down which other limitations can follow – limitations that cast a shadow back to that first Nuremberg law that mandated imprisonment for Jews who married non-Jews.

We encourage Minnesotans to vote ‘no’ to the upcoming Constitutional amendment in November defining marriage as only between one man and one woman.

Click here for more information on Minnesota United for All Families.

 

A recent statement by the United Nations Association of the United States affirms that LGBT rights are human rights. They state,

“The United Nations is increasingly concerned with the prevalence of discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. In more than 70 countries it is a crime for LGBT people to simply be who they are – a reality that exposes millions to the risk of arrest, imprisonment, and, in some cases, execution. The UN Secretary-General, the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and leaders of various UN agencies have advocated for the worldwide decriminalization of homosexuality and further measures to protect people from violence and discrimination on the bases of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Also, the Human Rights Council held an historic debate highlighting the discrimination faced by the LGBT community in March 2012 during which the Secretary-General denounced violence and discrimination. The Secretary-General boldly states that “the time has come” for the world to recognize LGBT rights.”

 

Genocide in Guatemala
July 25th, 2012 | Posted By

by Ellen J. Kennedy, Executive Director, World Without Genocide

 

View from Rio Negro community

Two nights ago I slept at a place in Guatemala that felt haunted.  In 1982, nearly 200 women and children were marched five miles up the steep mountain hillside – and then brutally killed and buried in a mass grave.  I heard their screams and cries in my dreams.

I came to Guatemala a few weeks ago to learn more about the genocide that happened here between 1960 and 1996, a period when 200,000 people perished; 100,000 more disappeared without a trace; and more than a million others were displaced from their homes and their communities.  Nearly all of this terror was carried out by the Guatemalan government’s army.

Most of us in the US know very little about this conflict that the United Nations has called genocide.  Beginning in the 1960s, the Guatemalan dictatorial government, faced with a challenge to its power and control by rising left-wing groups of indigenous people, intellectuals, union supporters, and others, responded with tactics of horrific cruelty.

The Commission for Historical Clarification, in its 1999 report, declared, “In the majority of massacres there is evidence of multiple acts of savagery.  Acts such as the killing of defenseless children, often by beating them against walls or throwing them alive into pits where the corpses of adults were later thrown; the amputation of limbs; the impaling of victims; the killing of persons by covering them in petrol and burning them alive; the extraction, in the presence of others, of the internal organs of victims who were still alive; the confinement of people who had been mortally tortured, in agony for days; the opening of the wombs of pregnant women, and other similarly atrocious acts, were not only actions of extreme cruelty against the victims, but also morally degraded the perpetrators and those who inspired, ordered or tolerated these actions.”

Massacre site memorial

A report by Human Rights Watch from 1984 discussed “the murder of thousands by a military government that maintains its authority by terror. One example is the massacre of over 160 civilians by government soldiers in the village of Las Dos Erres in 1982. The abuses included burying some alive in the village well, killing infants by slamming their heads against walls, keeping young women alive to be raped over the course of three days. This was not an isolated incident. Rather it was one of over 400 massacres documented by the truth commission – some of which, according to the commission, constituted “acts of genocide.”

Although the conflict technically ended in 1996, the government continues to target those who advocate for indigenous rights, land reform, an end to corruption, and a commitment to the enactment of the rule of law.

Today I’m in the small town of Huehuetanengo, a community that was particularly targeted during the genocide.  Thirty years after that conflict, the human rights leaders here today want the same things that their mothers and fathers fought for a generation ago.  There are laws to protect innocent civilians, enhance democracy, and preserve indigenous rights and cultures – but the laws are not enforced and the government and its army remain in full control of the political and economic sectors.

Genocides destabilize communities, countries, and regions for decades and for generations.   Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton spoke at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum earlier this week and affirmed the United States’ commitment to genocide prevention.  The opportunity is ours – to leave a legacy of a world without genocide.

World in Guatemala
July 10th, 2012 | Posted By

Greetings from Guatemala! Executive Director Dr. Ellen J. Kennedy and Program and Operations Coordinator Rachel Beecroft are traveling in Guatemala until July 26, in partnership with Rights Action, a human rights organization based out of Washington, D. C. and Toronto, Canada. Check out the work Rights Action does here.

We will spend time at the site of Marlin gold mine in the Department of San Marcos and the Chixoy Dam in the Department of Baja Verapaz, the site of the Rio Negro Massacre between 1980 and 1982.  We will have the immense privilege of hearing the stories of the Mayans who struggle against exploitation and atrocity testimony.

The Marlin gold mine is located in eastern Guatemala. Discovered in 1998 and developed into a working mine shortly thereafter, the mine has both open-pit and underground operations. Production will continue until at least 2017. Roughly 1,900 people work at the mine – half are locals and nearly all (98%) are Guatemalan. In addition to environmental concerns, there are allegations that development of the mine did not adequately consult the indigenous people and that existence of the mine is in violation of those peoples.

The Chixoy Dam is a concrete dam and power plant on the Chixoy River in central Guatemala. It was built in the 70s and 80s, and generates roughly 15% of the country’s power. Construction displaced over 3,445 people from several communities. The government orchestrated forced relocations from fertile agricultural lands to surrounding highlands. Over 440 Maya Achi were killed in the village of Rio Negro in as a result of the forced relocations and thousands were raped, kidnapped, and killed by paramilitary and military officials between 1980 and 1982, known as the Rio Negro Massacres. Claims relating to the Massacres have not yet been settled.

Upon return to Minneapolis, Kennedy and Beecroft will participate in an ‘It’s a Woman’s World’ taping and broadcast addressing the issues they investigated in Guatemala.

Stay tuned for more information on the broadcast and on World in Guatemala!